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J Bacteriol. 1998 May;180(9):2541-8.

A seven-gene locus for synthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79.

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Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region.


Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 produces the broad-spectrum antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), which is active against a variety of fungal root pathogens. In this study, seven genes designated phzABCDEFG that are sufficient for synthesis of PCA were localized within a 6.8-kb BglII-XbaI fragment from the phenazine biosynthesis locus of strain 2-79. Polypeptides corresponding to all phz genes were identified by analysis of recombinant plasmids in a T7 promoter/polymerase expression system. Products of the phzC, phzD, and phzE genes have similarities to enzymes of shikimic acid and chorismic acid metabolism and, together with PhzF, are absolutely necessary for PCA production. PhzG is similar to pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate oxidases and probably is a source of cofactor for the PCA-synthesizing enzyme(s). Products of the phzA and phzB genes are highly homologous to each other and may be involved in stabilization of a putative PCA-synthesizing multienzyme complex. Two new genes, phzX and phzY, that are homologous to phzA and phzB, respectively, were cloned and sequenced from P. aureofaciens 30-84, which produces PCA, 2-hydroxyphenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxyphenazine. Based on functional analysis of the phz genes from strains 2-79 and 30-84, we postulate that different species of fluorescent pseudomonads have similar genetic systems that confer the ability to synthesize PCA.

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