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Biochemistry. 1998 Apr 28;37(17):6188-98.

Inhibition of calmodulin-activated smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase by calmodulin-binding peptides and fluorescent (phosphodiesterase-activating) calmodulin derivatives.

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School of Biological Sciences, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, UK.


Aspects of the biochemistry of calmodulin have been addressed that bear on its cell biological role as a mediator of Ca2+ regulation. Calmodulin-binding peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) were characterized as inhibitors of calmodulin activation of MLCK-catalyzed phosphorylation of the smooth-muscle regulatory light chain (MLC). MLCK activity was determined by measuring the rate of formation of one of the reaction products, ADP, in a coupled enzymatic assay by continuous fluorimetric monitoring of NADH removal in 100 microM CaCl2 at ionic strength 0.15 M, pH 7.0 and 21 degreesC. The Km value of calmodulin was 3.5 nM, a value 16-35-fold greater than the Kd value of calmodulin for MLCK [Török, K., and Trentham D. R. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 12807-12820]. The different Km and Kd values are most likely associated with the rate-limiting step in MLC phosphorylation being associated with product release from MLCK. The values of the inhibition constants, Ki, were the following: Ac-R-R-K-W-Q-K-T-G-H-A-V-R-A-I-G-R-L-CONH2 (Trp peptide), 8.6 (+/-1. 4 sd) pM; Y4-analogue of Trp peptide (Tyr peptide), 7.3 (+/-0.1) nM; and A-R-R-K-W-Q-K-T-G-H-A-V-R-A-I-G-R-L-S-S (RS20-like peptide), 0. 11-0.39 nM. The Ki values were consistent with kinetically determined Kd values of the peptides to calmodulin. Kinetic determination of Kd values required the use of a fluorescently labeled calmodulin, 2-chloro-(epsilon-amino-Lys75)-[6-(4-N, N-diethylamino-phenyl)-1,3,5-triazin-4-yl]-calmodulin (TA-calmodulin).1 Since, as here, Lys75 is a convenient labeling site on calmodulin for the introduction of fluorescent probes, the biological activity of the Lys-modified calmodulins was evaluated. TA-calmodulin and calmodulin selectively modified by 1-N, N-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl-C1) at Lys75 (dansyl-calmodulin) were characterized as activators of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) and inhibitors of MLCK. The Km value for dansyl-calmodulin was equal to that of calmodulin, and that of TA-calmodulin was 3.5-fold greater. TA-calmodulin and Lys75-labeled dansyl-calmodulin thus distinguish between PDE and MLCK being agonists to the former and antagonists to the latter.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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