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Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1998;24(4):296-301.

Salt intake and renal outcome in patients with progressive renal disease.

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1
Nephrology Division, School of Medicine, I and II University of Naples, Italy. cianciar@unina.it

Abstract

Experimental studies suggest that salt intake plays a critical role in the progressive glomerular filtration rate (GFR) loss of established renal disease; however, this issue has never been addressed in humans. To this aim, we have retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), in whom a low-protein diet was prescribed, over a period of about 3 years. On the basis of the daily urinary sodium output, the patients were divided into two groups: a group of patients constantly ingesting > 200 mEq NaCl/day (high sodium intake, HSD, n = 30) and a group in which salt intake was < 100 mEq/day (low sodium intake, LSD, n = 27). Patients taking diuretics or ACE inhibitors were excluded. At baseline, the LSD group, as compared to the HSD group, was characterized by significantly lower creatinine clearance (24 +/- 2 vs. 28 +/- 2 ml/min) and higher proteinuria (2.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2 g/day). Despite the presence of these risk factors for progression, and a similar control of blood pressure (the average of the mean arterial pressure during follow-up was 111 +/- 2 mm Hg in LSD and 107 +/- 2 mm Hg in HSD), the LSD patients showed a better renal outcome: in this group, as compared to HSD, the GFR decline was lower (0.25 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.09 ml/min/month, p < 0.05), and proteinuria did not change while it markedly increased in HSD. During follow-up, LSD patients also ingested a significantly lower amount of protein. This study therefore suggests that efficacious salt restriction in CRF patients improves the outcome of renal disease independent from its antihypertensive effects.

PMID:
9554571
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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