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J Periodontal Res. 1998 Feb;33(2):75-82.

Coordinate production of PGE2 and IL-1 beta in the gingival crevicular fluid of adults with periodontitis: its relationship to alveolar bone loss and disruption by twice daily treatment with ketorolac tromethamine oral rinse.

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Procter and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45242, USA.


The inflammatory mediators prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) play critical roles in the inflammatory process leading to alveolar bone and connective tissue loss in periodontal disease. Data from a previously published 6-month clinical study demonstrated that twice daily use of 0.1% ketorolac tromethamine oral rinse prevented alveolar bone loss in adults with periodontitis. We further analyzed data from this study to examine the relationship between PGE2. IL-1 beta and bone loss. Patient mean PGE2 and IL-1 beta levels in gingival crevicular fluid (M-GCF) measured throughout the course of the study were directly compared to the maximum amount of alveolar bone height loss observed at a single study site in each patient. The maximum amount of bone loss measured was chosen for the analysis since the pattern of bone loss was clearly episodic in nature. A statistically significant correlation (r = 0.73, p = 0.001) exists between M-GCF PGE2 concentration and the maximum amount of bone height lost at individual patient study sites. The correlation between M-GCF IL-1 beta concentration and maximum bone height lost is also statistically significant (r = 0.66, p = 0.005). Over the 6-month duration of the study, both PGE2 and IL-1 beta were coordinately expressed in the placebo treatment group as reflected in the significant correlation between M-GCF concentrations of the 2 mediators (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). Treatment of patients with 0.1% ketorolac tromethamine twice daily for 6 months resulted in reductions of PGE2 in GCF and a negligible correlation between M-GCF PGE2 and M-GCF IL-1 beta (r = 0.42, p = 0.088). This lack of a strong association between the 2 mediators in the ketorolac treatment group provides a direct biochemical readout of the anti-inflammatory efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine oral rinse in patients with periodontitis. Further studies are warranted to determine the full diagnostic potential of M-GCF levels of PGE2 and IL-1 beta for predicting risk of alveolar bone loss in patients with periodontitis and monitoring periodontal therapy effectiveness.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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