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Am J Sports Med. 1998 Mar-Apr;26(2):221-30.

Early phase differential effects of slow and fast barbell squat training.

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Department of Health Sciences, Sargent College of Allied Health Professions, Boston University, Massachusetts, USA.


To examine the importance of resistance training movement speed, two groups of women (24 +/- 4 years, 162 +/- 5 cm, 59 +/- 7 kg) squatted repeatedly at 1) 2 seconds up, 2 seconds down (slow, N = 11); or 2) 1 second up, 1 second down (fast, N = 10), doing three warm-up sets and three eight-repetition maximum sets, three times per week for 7 weeks. Tests included force platform and video analysis of the vertical jump, long jump, and maximum squat, and isometric and isokinetic knee extensor testing at speeds from 25 to 125 deg/sec. The groups improved similarly in many variables with training but also showed some differences. In the long jump, the fast group was superior in numerous variables including knee peak velocity and total-body vertical and absolute power. In the vertical jump, fast training affected the ankle and hip more (e.g., average power), and slow training mostly affected the knee (average torque). In isokinetic testing, the fast group improved strength most at the faster velocities, while the slow group strength changes were consistent across the velocities tested. Although both slow and fast training improved performance, faster training showed some advantages in quantity and magnitude of training effects.

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