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Atherosclerosis. 1998 Jan;136(1):25-31.

Cardiovascular risk factors in non-insulin-dependent diabetics compared to non-diabetic controls: a population-based survey among Asians in Singapore.

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Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, Singapore.


Cardiovascular risk factors were compared between 126 people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 530 non-diabetics (controls), in a random sample of people (Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians) aged 40-69 years from the general population of Singapore. Data were adjusted for age and ethnicity. For both genders, people with NIDDM had higher mean body mass indices, waist-hip ratios and abdominal diameters. They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension, higher mean levels of fasting serum triglyceride, slightly lower mean levels of serum high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and higher mean levels of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator (antigen). These factors are components of syndrome X (metabolic syndrome) and increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In contrast, there were no important differences for cigarette smoking, serum total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum apolipoproteins A1 and B, plasma factor VIIc and plasma prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Females with NIDDM, but not males, had a higher mean serum fibrinogen level than non-diabetics, which could explain why NIDDM has a greater cardiovascular effect in females than males. Serum lipoprotein(a) concentrations were lower in people with NIDDM. Mean levels of serum ferritin, a pro-oxidant, were higher in people with NIDDM than controls, but there were no important differences for plasma vitamins A, C and E, and serum selenium, which are anti-oxidants.

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