Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Vision Res. 1998 Feb;38(4):499-512.

Accuracy of estimating time to collision using binocular and monocular information.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, York University, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

We measured both the just-noticeable difference in time to collision (TTC) with an approaching object, and the absolute accuracy in estimating TTC in the following cases: only binocular information available; only monocular information available; both binocular and monocular information available as in the everyday situation. Observers could discriminate trial-to-trial variations in TTC on the basis of binocular information alone: the just-noticeable difference in TTC (5.1-9.8%) was the same for a small (0.03 deg) target and for a large (0.7 deg) target. In line with previous reports, when only monocular information was available, the just-noticeable difference in TTC was 5.8-12% for the large target. However, observers could not reliably discriminate trial-to-trial variations in TTC with the small target when only monocular information was available. When both binocular and monocular information was available, the just-noticeable difference in TTC for the large target was not significantly different from when only binocular or only monocular information was available. Observers could make reliable estimates of absolute TTC using binocular information only. Errors ranged from 2.5 to 10% for the large target, and 2.6 to 3.0% for the small target, all being overestimates. Errors for the small target were the same or lower than errors for the large target. Observers could make reliable estimates of TTC with the large target using monocular information only. Errors ranged from 2.0 to 12%, all being underestimates. Since monocular information did not provide a basis for reliable estimates of absolute TTC with the small target we conclude that, in everyday conditions, accurate estimates of TTC with small targets are based on binocular information when the object is small and is no more than a few metres away. Errors in estimating absolute TTC were lower in the case where both binocular and monocular information were available (as in the everyday situation) than when only binocular information or only monocular information was available. Errors ranged from 1.3 to 2.7%. An error of 1.3% approaches the accuracy required to explain the +/- 2.0-2.5 msec accuracy with which top sports players can estimate the instant of impact between bat and ball.

PMID:
9536374
DOI:
10.1016/s0042-6989(97)00230-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center