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Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1998 Apr;18(2):211-30.

Molecular diversity in neurosecretion: reflections on the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

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Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


1. The diversity of molecules involved in various aspects of neurosecretion, such as proprotein processing, axonal transport of large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), and regulated secretion, is discussed in the context of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS). 2. Recent studies have uncovered a family of at least seven processing enzymes known as proprotein convertases (PCs) which are involved in proteolytically cleaving protein precursors at paired basic amino acid motifs to yield biologically active peptides. Three of these, PC1(3), 2, and 5, are found in neurons and are involved in producing regulated secretory peptide products. 3. The axonal transport of LDCVs occurs on microtubule tracks by still unknown mechanisms. There are over 11 distinct kinesin-related molecules that have now been identified as possible microtubule motor candidates. 4. Calcium channels in the nervous system are known to be derived from at least five alpha-subunit and four beta-subunit genes with multiple alternatively spliced isoforms in each case. These could account, in part, for the varied calcium currents found in the HNS. 5. The large number of proteins and isoforms now demonstrated to be involved in regulated secretion are discussed, with a focus on LDCV compositions and the synaptotagmin gene family.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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