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FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998 Mar 15;160(2):191-7.

Expression of CDR1, a multidrug resistance gene of Candida albicans: transcriptional activation by heat shock, drugs and human steroid hormones.

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Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.


We have examined the expression of CDR1 (Candida drug resistance gene) in different stress conditions. There was a significant but transient enhancement of CDR1 expression associated with elevated temperatures. Most noteworthy transcriptional activation was observed with miconazole and vinblastine. Interestingly, beta-estradiol and progesterone were also able to enhance CDR1 expression. Elevated levels of CDR1 and CDR2 (a homologue of CDR1) mRNA were found in some azole-resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. CaMDR1 (benomyl-resistant) expression, however, did not differ among all the resistant isolates. Our results confirm the existence of multiple mechanisms of azole resistance in C. albicans.

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