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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1998 Feb;8(1):103-11.

SMADs: mediators and regulators of TGF-beta signaling.

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Cell Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.


The discovery of SMAD proteins has allowed the delineation of a mechanism by which TGF-beta and related growth factors convey their signals from membrane receptors all the way into the nucleus. SMADs are directly phosphorylated and activated by the receptors and then form heteromeric SMAD-SMAD complexes that move into the nucleus where they orchestrate transcriptional responses. In rapid succession, recent reports have identified different modes of SMAD regulation by phosphorylation and have defined the SMAD domains that mediate SMAD interactions, binding to DNA or transcriptional activation. The recent discovery of antagonistic SMADs and regulatory crosstalk with Ras/MAP-kinase pathways add to our rapidly expanding understanding of this major regulatory network.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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