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J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Feb 13;705(2):323-9.

Sensitive liquid chromatographic technique to measure isoniazid in alveolar cells, bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma in HIV-infected patients.

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Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, 94110, USA.


The need to monitor the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs in treating opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients requires the development of sensitive assays. A suitable HPLC method was developed to measure the concentration of isoniazid (INH) in plasma 1 h after a standard 300 mg dose and to detect the low levels typically found in alveolar cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of subjects maintained on a standard regimen of the drug. Following extraction with a chloroform-butanol mixture, the INH was back-extracted into dilute acid which was subsequently analyzed by HPLC using a CN reversed-phase column and an acetonitrile-isopropanol based mobile phase. Another HPLC method was developed using direct injection and a polymer based column to measure minute concentrations of INH in the cell-free lavage. In both systems, detection of the drug was accomplished with a sealed coulometric detector (+0.6 V) capable of giving a consistent daily response without adjustment. When saline, cellular extracts and plasma from untreated subjects were spiked with various amounts of INH and analyzed, the lowest level of quantitation was 10, 25 and 100 ng/ml, respectively. Calibration curves showed good linearity when spiked concentrations were compared to peak areas (r=0.991, 0.993 and 0.998, respectively). Alveolar cell extracts and cell-free bronchoalveolar fluid from HIV-positive patients maintained on a standard INH regimen had detectable levels of INH 4 h after a 300 mg oral dose. The plasma INH at 1 h had a range of 0.3-7.1 microg/ml (n = 50). Precision studies with plasma spiked at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 microg/ml revealed within-run coefficients of variation (C.V.s) of 8.9, 7.2, 4.2 and 4.9%, respectively and analytical recoveries of 97, 108, 108 and 98%, respectively. The day-to-day C.V.s for the plasma method were 7.6, 4.9 and 3.8% at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 microg/ml, respectively. The results suggest that this rugged HPLC technique can quantitate INH in 1 h plasma with good precision and can be used to estimate the very low INH concentrations found in alveolar cells and cell-free lavage recovered from patients undergoing anti-tuberculosis therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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