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Yeast. 1997 Dec;13(16):1519-34.

Two-dimensional electrophoretic separation of yeast proteins using a non-linear wide range (pH 3-10) immobilized pH gradient in the first dimension; reproducibility and evidence for isoelectric focusing of alkaline (pI > 7) proteins.

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Göteborg University, Sweden.


The proteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analysed by two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis utilizing a non-linear immobilized pH gradient (3-10) in the first-dimensional separation. Cells were labelled by [35S]methionine incorporation in the respiro-fermentative phase during exponential growth on glucose. Gels were run, visualized with phosphoimager technology and all resolved proteins automatically quantified. Proteins were well resolved over the whole pH interval, and evidence for isoelectric focusing on the basic side of the pattern was generated by sequencing of some spots, revealing the 2D positions of Tef1p, Pgk1p, Gpm1p, Tdh1p and Shm2p. Roughly 25% of the spots were resolved at the alkaline side of the pattern (pI > 7). The position reproducibility was high and in the range 1-2 mm in the x- and y-dimension, respectively. No quantitative variation was linked to a certain size or charge class of resolved proteins, and the average quantitative standard deviation was 17 +/- 11%. The obtained immobilized pH gradient based pattern could easily be compared to the old ampholine-based 2D pattern, and the previously reported identifications could thus be transferred. Our yeast pattern currently contains 43 known proteins, all identified by protein sequencing. Utilizing these identified proteins, relevant pI and Mr scales in the pattern were constructed. Normalization of the expression of identified spots by compensating for the number of methionine residues a protein contains allowed stoichiometric comparisons. The most dominant proteins under these growth conditions were Tdh3p, Fba1p, Eno2p and Tef1p/Tef2p, all being expressed at more than 500,000 copies per cell. The differential carbon source response during exponential growth on either glucose, galactose or ethanol was examined for the alkaline proteins identified by micro-sequencing in this study.

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