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J Gen Intern Med. 1998 Feb;13(2):111-6.

Giving feedback in medical education: verification of recommended techniques.

Author information

1
Cleveland Clinic, Ohio 44195-5241, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated naturally occurring feedback incidents to substantiate literature-based recommended techniques for giving feedback effectively.

SETTING:

A faculty development course for improving the teaching of the medical interview, with opportunities for participants to receive feedback.

PARTICIPANTS:

Seventy-four course participants (clinician-educators from a wide range of medical disciplines, and several behavioral scientists).

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

We used qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants provided narratives of helpful and unhelpful incidents experienced during the course and then rated their own narratives using a semantic-differential survey. We found strong agreement between the two approaches, and congruence between our data and the recommended literature. Giving feedback effectively includes: establishing an appropriate interpersonal climate; using an appropriate location; establishing mutually agreed upon goals; eliciting the learner's thoughts and feelings; reflecting on observed behaviors; being nonjudgmental; relating feedback to specific behaviors; offering the right amount of feedback; and offering suggestions for improvement.

CONCLUSIONS:

Feedback techniques experienced by respondents substantiate the literature-based recommendations, and corrective feedback is regarded as helpful when delivered appropriately. A model for providing feedback is offered.

PMID:
9502371
PMCID:
PMC1496906
DOI:
10.1046/j.1525-1497.1998.00027.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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