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J Magn Reson Imaging. 1998 Jan-Feb;8(1):175-81.

Calibration of water proton chemical shift with temperature for noninvasive temperature imaging during focused ultrasound surgery.

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Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


The present work was performed to calibrate water proton chemical shift change with tissue temperature in vivo to establish a method of quantitative temperature imaging during focused ultrasound surgery. The chemical shift change measured with a phase-mapping method using spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition in steady state (SPGR) (TR = 26 msec, TE = 12.8 msec, matrix = 256 x 128) was calibrated with the corresponding temperature elevation (0-50 degrees C, 32-84 degrees C in absolute temperature) measured with a copper-constantan thermocouple (.05-mm-diameter bare wires) in rabbit skeletal muscle (16 animals) under focused ultrasound exposures (10-100 W radiofrequency [RF] power, 20-second sonication). A linear calibration with a regression coefficient of (-8.76+/-.69) x 10(-3) ppm/degrees C (P < .01 [P, significance level]) was obtained. Temperature distributions during a 20-second sonication were visualized every 3.3 seconds with a 2.3-mm3 spatial resolution and 4 degrees C temperature uncertainty.

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