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Poult Sci. 1998 Feb;77(2):309-21.

The infusion rate dependent influence of acute metabolic acidosis on pulmonary vascular resistance in broilers.

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Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701, USA.


Experiments were conducted to evaluate the pulmonary vascular responses of lightly anesthetized clinically healthy male broilers during acute metabolic acidosis induced by bolus i.v. injections or constant i.v. infusions of HCl. In Experiment 1, broilers received consecutive 1.5 mL i.v. bolus injections of 2.5% mannitol (volume control) and 0.4 N, 0.8 N, and 1.2 N HCl in 2.5% mannitol. Following each injection, equivalent concentrations of mannitol or HCl were infused i.v. at a rate of 0.05 mL/ BW. In Experiment 2, repeated bolus injections of 2.5% mannitol and 1.2 N HCl were administered during ongoing constant infusion of 2.5% mannitol. The following variables were evaluated: pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, mean arterial pressure, total peripheral resistance, cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT), and arterial blood gas (PaO2, PaCO2, pH, HCO3-). Mannitol alone did not alter any of the variables. The HCl loading protocols acidified the arterial blood to sustained (constant infusion) or transient (bolus injection) values averaging between pH 7.2 and 7.3. In both experiments, bolus injections of 1.2 N HCl caused transient increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure, coincident with decreases in mean arterial pressure and cardiac output. When HCl was infused at a constant rate in Experiment 1, the arterial blood hydrogen ion concentration, [H+], was positively correlated with pulmonary arterial pressure and cardiac output, negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance, and was not correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance. During constant i.v. infusion of mannitol or HCl in both experiments, pulmonary arterial pressure was positively correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output. Overall, bolus injections of 1.2 N HCl consistently triggered transient pulmonary vasoconstriction (increased pulmonary vascular resistance), leading to a transient increase in pulmonary arterial pressure in spite of opposing changes in cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. In contrast, equivalent or greater increases in [H+] during constant i.v. infusion of HCl caused a substantially lower increment in pulmonary arterial pressure, which, in, turn was primarily attributable to increases in cardiac output rather than pulmonary vascular resistance. Increments in either pulmonary vascular resistance or cardiac output induced by metabolic acidosis would be expected to contribute to the onset of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) in broilers.

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