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A single-dose study to assess the penetration of stavudine into human cerebrospinal fluid in adults.

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1
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey. USA.

Abstract

Penetration of stavudine into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied in healthy humans. In this open, randomized study, a single oral dose of 40 mg of stavudine was given to 12 fasting volunteers > or = 18 years of age. Subjects were divided into three groups based on the time of CSF sampling (i.e., 0.75-1.25, 2-3, or 4-5 hours after dosing). Blood samples were collected over an 8-hour period after dosing and included a sample simultaneous with CSF collection to permit an estimate of CSF : plasma ratios. Stavudine concentrations in plasma and CSF were determined by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Repeated measurements of vital signs, physical examination, and clinical laboratory tests indicated that the stavudine dose was well tolerated. CSF levels were not detected 0.75 to 1.25 hours after dosing. Thereafter, levels were detected in the CSF of five subjects; the mean concentration was 61 ng/ml. The mean CSF: plasma ratio increased with time, from 0.16 at 2 to 3 hours postdose in one subject to 0.40 at 4 to 5 hours postdose in four subjects. In conclusion, the mean stavudine concentration of 61 ng/ml achieved in the CSF of five subjects exceeds the ED50 of clinical isolates of HIV (230 nM, 52 ng/ml).

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