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J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998 Feb 6;53(3):231-50.

Dietary cholestyramine reduces ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat by decreasing plasma levels and enhancing fecal excretion of the toxin.

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Département de Nutrition, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada.


Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that may contaminate animal feed (oat, barley, and rye) and food (wheat, rice, coffee, beer, pig meat), leading to major health problems (e.g., nephropathy) in several animal species including humans. Several methods have been tested to reduce the toxicity of OTA in animals but with limited success. In rats, the effect of cholestyramine (CHA), a bile acid-binding resin, was investigated on OTA-induced nephrotoxicity and bioavailability. Animals were fed semisynthetic diets containing two levels of OTA: 1 or 3 ppm. At each level of OTA, the diets were enriched with 0.1, 1, and 5% of CHA. The results showed that CHA decreased the concentration of OTA in plasma. At 1 and 3 ppm of OTA in the diet, CHA is effective at a level of 0.1% and 5%, respectively. The excretion of OTA and its metabolites (ochratoxin alpha and hydroxylated ochratoxin A) in bile and urine was also decreased by addition of 5% CHA in the diet. This was associated with an increase of OTA excretion in feces. Enzymuria and renal morphology revealed that dietary CHA can decrease OTA-induced nephrotoxicity, probably by reducing renal exposure to the toxin. In conclusion, CHA can reduce OTA concentrations in plasma as well as reducing nephrotoxicity, which may be attributed to a decrease of bioavailability and/or enterohepatic circulation of the toxin.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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