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Mutat Res. 1997 Dec 12;395(2-3):179-87.

Formation of DNA adducts by cyproterone acetate and some structural analogues in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

Author information

1
GSF-Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, Institut für Toxikologie, München, Germany.

Abstract

Recently, we have shown that the therapeutically-used progestin and antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) causes the formation of high levels of DNA adducts in rat hepatocytes and rat liver [J. Topinka, U. Andrae, L.R. Schwarz, T. Wolff, Cyproterone acetate generates DNA adducts in rat liver and in primary rat hepatocyte cultures, Carcinogenesis 14 (1993) 423-427: J. Topinka, B. Binkova, L.R. Schwarz, T. Wolff, Cyproterone acetate is an integral part of hepatic DNA adducts induced by this steroidal drug, Carcinogenesis 17 (1996) 167-169; S. Werner, J. Topinka, T. Wolff, L.R. Schwarz, Accumulation and persistence of DNA adducts of the synthetic steroid cyproterone acetate in rat liver, Carcinogenesis 16 (1995) 2369-2372; J. Topinka, B. Binkova, H.K. Zhu, U. Andrae, I. Neumann, L.R. Schwarz, S. Werner, T. Wolff, DNA damaging activity of the cyproterone acetate analogues chlormadinone acetate and megestrol acetate in rat liver, Carcinogenesis 16 (1995) 1483-1487]. Its structural analogues, chlormadinone acetate (CMA) and megestrol acetate (MGA) were much less active in this respect [J. Topinka, B. Binkova, H.K. Zhu, U. Andrae, I. Neumann, L.R. Schwarz, S. Werner, T. Wolff, DNA damaging activity of the cyproterone acetate analogues chlormadinone acetate and megestrol acetate in rat liver, Carcinogenesis 16 (1995) 1483-1487]. In the present study we addressed the question whether these compounds and two further analogues, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and progesterone, induce the formation of DNA adducts in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Incubation of CPA with human hepatocytes from two male and four female donors induced the formation of significant levels of CPA-DNA adducts detectable by 32P-postlabeling. The by far most prevalent DNA adduct is most likely identical with adduct A formed in CPA-treated rats. DNA binding was found even at 0.03 microM CPA, the lowest concentration used. The maximum effect occurred at about 10 microM in 5 of the 6 cell preparations. At this concentration 480 and 2690 adducts x 10(-9) nucleotides were detected in hepatocytes of the two male donors and 1072, 816, 613 and 659 adducts x 10(-9) nucleotides in the hepatocytes of the four female donors after an exposure of 6 h with CPA. Extending the incubation time to 20 h resulted in a roughly three-fold higher binding. CMA and MGA were assayed in two of the liver cell preparations from the female donors. At a concentration of 20 microM and an incubation time of 6 h, DNA adduct levels for CMA were 21 and 43% and for MGA 31 and 65% of the levels observed with 20 microM CPA. In contrast, DNA binding of MPA amounted to less than 1% of that observed with CPA and DNA binding of the natural occurring progestin progesterone was below the level of detection. The results point to a genotoxic risk associated with the therapeutic use of CPA and possibly of CMA and MGA. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the significant genotoxicity observed with CPA, MGA and CMA is associated with the presence of the double bond in position 6-7 of the steroid, which is absent in MPA and progesterone.

PMID:
9465929
DOI:
10.1016/s1383-5718(97)00167-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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