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JAMA. 1998 Feb 4;279(5):365-70.

Low dosage and long treatment duration of beta-lactam: risk factors for carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Author information

1
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 21 and Faculté de Médecine Paris Sud, Villejuif, France.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

The spread of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the community is a public health problem in developed and developing nations, but whether antibiotic use is responsible for the increase in drug resistance is not known.

OBJECTIVE:

To analyze the relationship between penicillin-resistant S pneumoniae (PRSp) pharyngeal carriage and characteristics of beta-lactam use.

DESIGN:

Observational study of children attending 20 randomly sampled schools.

SETTING:

The Loiret, in the center of France.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 941 children, 3 to 6 years old.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):

Pharyngeal carriage of S pneumoniae, antibiotic use, and medical events during the preceding 30 days. Pneumococcal penicillin G sodium minimal inhibitory concentrations and serotyping were performed.

RESULTS:

Medical illnesses and the use of antibiotics were not associated with PRSp carriage. However, oral beta-lactam use was associated with an increased risk of PRSp carriage (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.3; P=.03). Children treated by low daily doses of an oral beta-lactam (defined as lower than clinical recommendations) had an increased risk of PRSp carriage, as compared with children who did not (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.1-16.7; P=.002). A treatment of long duration (>5 days) with a beta-lactam was associated with an increased risk of PRSp carriage (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3-9.8; P=.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that a low daily dose and a long duration of treatment with an oral beta-lactam contribute to the selective pressure in promoting pharyngeal carriage of PRSp.

PMID:
9459469
DOI:
10.1001/jama.279.5.365
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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