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[Femoral reconstruction with endosteal bone allografts protected by a metallic mesh in reoperation of total hip prosthesis. 19 cases with an average follow-up of 83 months].

[Article in French]

Author information

1
Service d'Orthopédie-Traumatologie B, Hôpital Salengro, C.H.R.U. de Lille.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:

To assess after 83 months of follow-up, the results of 19 femoral revisions carried out according to an original method combining a cemented stem and bone reconstruction by means of impacted-morcelized bone allograft protected by a titanium mesh.

MATERIALS:

Twenty hips (18 patients mean aged 58 at surgery) were included between 1986 and 1991. Five hips had a least one previous prosthetic revision, one hip was revised because of septic loosening. No patient was lost for follow-up, but two had died during the follow-up period: one patient died one month after surgery was excluded, one other died 7 years after the index procedure and was included with his last hip rating. Loss of femoral bone stock was severe according to the SOFCOT four stage rating system: 2 femurs were grade II, 14 grade III, and 3 grade IV. Femoral stem migration was assessed with landmarks recommended by Walker. All the measurements were performed with a digitizer (OrthoGraphics).

METHODS:

All the procedures were carried out through a posterolateral approach, augmented by 4 trochanteric osteotomies and 5 distal femoral windows. After prosthesis and cement removal, a bone plug was placed into the medullary canal. Then, cancelous bone morcelized allografts were impacted in the femoral defects through the medullary canal. A titanium mesh cylinder was placed into the femur to separate the graft from the cement introduced later to obtain fixation of the revision stem. The stem was extended about 5 centimeters over the distal edge of the grafts in order to bridge the femoral defects. The mesh was extended only in front of the grafts and was used to protect them from excessive cement penetration.

RESULTS:

Functional improvement was noticeable since the Merle d'Aubigné Hip score improved from 9.8 to 16.3 at follow-up. The pain score improved from 2.1 to 5.5 and walking score from 2.3 to 5. Adverse effects occurred during the first cases and were related to cement removal: 3 greater trochanter fractures, 5 distal femoral perforations and 2 non displaced femoral shaft fractures. The septic revision had recurrence of infection associated with radiolucent lines > 2 millimeters and the only one graft resorption. One trochanteric non-union was observed but no prosthetic dislocation. Only one femoral stem migration (4.4 millimeters) was detected without any other radiographic features of loosening after 9 years of follow-up. This stem was considered as loosed, but was not revised because of few clinical symptoms. Only 2 radiolucent lines less than 2 millimeters at the bone cement interface in Gruen's zones 3 to 5. Likewise, no radiographic feature of stress-shielding was observed. On follow-up X-rays, 3 hips had corticalisation of the grafts, and 12 hips demonstrated normal cancelous trabeculations in the grafts.

CONCLUSION:

Satisfactory functional and radiographic results were obtained with this method after 5 to 10 years of follow-up instead of severe preoperative femoral bone stock impairement. Likewise, we observed only one recurrence of loosening diagnosed with the help of digitized X-ray examination. Only one significant (> 3.5 mm) femoral stem migration was detected. Radiographic features of femoral reconstruction were observed but without histologic proof of graft integration. This method uses a longer stem than the "Exeter", but avoids a high rate of femoral stem migration and appears compatible with femoral bone reconstruction.

PMID:
9452810
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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