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J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 1997 Nov-Dec;19(5-6):378-84.

Microbial models of soil metabolism: biotransformations of danofloxacin.

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Division of Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.


Danofloxacin is a new synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent under development for exclusive use in veterinary medicine. Such use could lead to deposition of low levels of danofloxacin residues in the environment in manure from treated livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for indigenous soil microorganisms to metabolize danofloxacin. Cultures of 72 soil microorganisms representing a diverse panel of bacteria, fungi and yeast were incubated with danofloxacin mesylate substrate and samples analyzed periodically by high performance liquid chromatography for loss of danofloxacin and formation of metabolites. Some samples were further analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry to confirm metabolite identification. Twelve organisms, representing eight different genera, biotransformed danofloxacin to metabolites detectable by the chromatographic methods employed. Two Mycobacterium species, two Pseudomonas species, and isolates of Nocardia sp, Rhizopus arrhizus and Streptomyces griseus all formed N-desmethyldanofloxacin. The formation of the 7-amino danofloxacin derivative, 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-7-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid by cultures of Candida lipopytica, Pseudomonas fluorescens, two Mycobacterium species and three Penicillium species demonstrates the propensities of these cultures to completely degrade the piperazine ring. At least two additional and unidentified metabolite peaks were observed in chromatograms of Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium sp cultures. Radiolabled [2-14C]danofloxacin added to cultures of the fungus Curvularia lunata was apparently mineralized, with approximately 31% of the radiolabel recovered as volatile metabolites after 24 h of incubation, indicating the susceptibility of the quinolone ring to microbial metabolic degradation.

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