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Obes Res. 1997 Nov;5(6):613-21.

Relationship of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase to protein phosphatase 2C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase in liver of obese rhesus monkeys.

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Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland at Baltimore 21201, USA.


The regulation of glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity by phosphorylation/ dephosphorylation has been proposed to be via changes in activities of several different protein (serine/threonine) phosphatases and kinases, including protein phosphatase (PP) 1/2A, PP2C, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In order to determine whether PP1/2A, PP2C, and/or PKA activities are related to GS and/or GP activities, these enzymes were measured in freeze-clamped liver biopsies obtained under basal fasting conditions from 16 obese monkeys. Four monkeys were normoglycemic and normoinsulinemic, five were hyperinsulinemic, and seven had type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). Liver glycogen and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) contents were also determine. Basal enzyme activities and basal substrate concentrations were not significantly different between the three group of obese monkeys; however, there were several significant linear relationships observed when the monkeys were treated as one group. Therefore, multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between key variables. GS fractional activity was correlated to GP fractional activity (p < 0.05) and to PP2C activity (p = 0.005) (adjusted R2, 53%). GP independent activity was correlated to GS independent activity (p < 0.07) and to PKA fractional activity (p = 0.005) (adjusted R2, 64%). PP2C activity was correlated to GS fractional activity (p < 0.0005) and to PP1/2A activity (p < 0.0001) (adjusted R2, 83%). PKA fractional activity was correlated to GP total activity (p < 0.0005) and to age (p = 0.001) (adjusted R2, 82%). G6P content was correlated to glycogen content (p < 0.05) and to PP2C activity (p = 0.0005) (adjusted R2, 73%). In conclusion, PP2C and PKA are involved in the regulation of GS and GP activity in the basal state in liver of obese monkeys with a wide range of glucose tolerance.

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