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Virology. 1998 Jan 5;240(1):83-92.

CCR5 coreceptor usage of non-syncytium-inducing primary HIV-1 is independent of phylogenetically distinct global HIV-1 isolates: delineation of consensus motif in the V3 domain that predicts CCR-5 usage.

Author information

1
Retrovirus Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Abstract

The cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is dependent on utilization of specific chemokine co-receptor: macrophage-tropic/non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) viruses use CCR5, whereas T-cell tropic/syncytium-inducing (SI) viruses preferentially use CXCR4. We have analyzed co-receptor usage of 24 phylogenetically distinct primary HIV-1 isolates representing group M (clades A-F) and group O with known SI and NSI phenotype, using lymphocytes from donor with nonfunctional CCR5 (CCR5-/-; homozygous 32-bp deletion). While all SI isolates infected CCR5-/- lymphocytes (and hence do not require CCR5 for viral entry), all NSI isolates, regardless of clade, did not infect CCR5-/- lymphocytes. Thus, CCR5 expression is required for infection with NSI isolates and the CCR5 usage is independent of viral genotype. To localize the viral determinant involved in CCR5 binding, the V3 sequences across the clades were aligned based on the CCR5 usage. There were conserved uncharged residues at position 11 of V3 (mostly serine/glycine) and negatively charged residues at residue 25 (mostly glutamic/aspartic acid) among all isolates that used CCR5, whereas substitution with arginine or glutamine at these two positions led to usage of a co-receptor other than CCR5. This analysis led us to identify a consensus motif S/GXXXGPGXXXXXXXE/D within the V3 loop that predicts CCR5 co-receptor usage. Most isolates, with exception of one isolate, containing the conserved motif and predicted to utilize CCR5 indeed had an absolute requirement of CCR5 expression for infectibility. Site-directed mutagenesis in the infectious molecular clone further confirmed these results. Taken together, these data provide evidence that sequences within the V3 loop provide important residues that might be directly or indirectly involved in binding to a CCR5 co-receptor.

PMID:
9448692
DOI:
10.1006/viro.1997.8924
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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