Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Environ Mol Mutagen. 1997;30(4):440-7.

Glutathione S-transferase-mediated induction of GC-->AT transitions by halomethanes in Salmonella.

Author information

  • 1Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.


Halomethanes are among the most common mutagenic and carcinogenic disinfection by-products present in the volatile/semivolatile fraction of chlorinated drinking water. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mutagenicity of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and bromodichloromethane (BrCHCl2) can be mediated by a theta-class glutathione S-transferase (GSTT1-1). These studies used strain RSJ100 of Salmonella, which is a derivative of the base-substitution strain TA1535 (hisG46, rfa, delta uvrB), into which has been cloned the GSTT1-1 gene from rat. In the present report, we have extended these studies by demonstrating that the mutagenicity of two additional brominated trihalomethanes, bromoform (CHBr3) and chlorodibromomethane (CICHBr2), are also mediated by GSTT1-1 in RSJ100. Using a Tedlar bag vaporization technique, the mutagenic potencies (revertants/ppm) for these two compounds as well as the compounds tested previously rank as follows: CHBr3 approximately CICHBr2 > BrCHCl2 approximately CH2Cl2. To explore the mutational mechanism, we determined the mutation spectra of all four halomethanes at the hisG46 allele by performing colony probe hybridizations of approximately 100 revertants induced by each compound. The majority (96-100%) of the mutations were GC-->AT transitions, and 87-100% of these were at the second position of the CCC/GGG target. In contrast, only 15% of mutants induced by CH2Cl2 were GC-->AT transitions in the absence of the GSTT1-1 gene in strain TA100 (a homologue of TA1535 containing the plasmid pKM101). The ability of GSTT1-1 to mediate the mutagenicity of these di- and trihalomethanes and the induction of almost exclusively GC-->AT transitions by these compounds suggest that these halomethanes are activated by similar pathways in RSJ100, possibly through similar reactive intermediates. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to previous experimental work on the GST-mediated bioactivation of dihalomethanes, which includes the possible formation of GSH intermediates and/or GSH-DNA adducts.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center