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Acad Radiol. 1995 Oct;2(10):902-4.

Design and evaluation of a flow phantom.

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Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-2675, USA.



We constructed a near-anatomically correct large-vessel phantom to perform repeatable flow dynamics research examinations by angiography, magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, and computed tomography (CT) angiography.


An internal carotid artery was constructed within a head phantom. The internal carotid artery branches into a middle and an anterior cerebral artery; the former trifurcates and ends in the superior sagittal sinus, and the latter ends in the inferior sagittal sinus. A transverse and sigmoid sinus drains the model. All four vessels connecting the arterial and venous vessels have variable flow-constricting ligatures placed around them. These ligatures are accessible on the skull surface. The skull cavity is filled with a silicone polymer that is isodense to brain on CT scans and isointense on most MR images.


The flow in the phantom's vessels may be varied in a repeatable manner. Multiple scan sequences may be performed without the image degradation caused by patient motion. The homogeneity of the filler polymer allows visualization of flow-related artifacts that may be hidden by complex human anatomy.


Preliminary images of each modality show promise for use of the phantom in imaging research on large-vessel flow dynamics.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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