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Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Jan;18(1):240-9.

DDB, a putative DNA repair protein, can function as a transcriptional partner of E2F1.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612, USA.

Abstract

The transcription factor E2F1 is believed to be involved in the regulated expression of the DNA replication genes. To gain insights into the transcriptional activation function of E2F1, we looked for proteins in HeLa nuclear extracts that bind to the activation domain of E2F1. Here we show that DDB, a putative DNA repair protein, associates with the activation domain of E2F1. DDB was identified as a heterodimeric protein (48 and 127 kDa) that binds to UV-damaged DNA. We show that the UV-damaged-DNA binding activity from HeLa nuclear extracts can associate with the activation domain of E2F1. Moreover, the 48-kDa subunit of DDB, synthesized in vitro, binds to a fusion protein of E2F1 depending on the C-terminal activation domain. The interaction between DDB and E2F1 can also be detected by coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Immunoprecipitation of an epitope-tagged DDB from cell extracts resulted in the coprecipitation of E2F1. In a reciprocal experiment, immunoprecipitates of E2F1 were found to contain DDB. Fractionation of HeLa nuclear extracts also revealed a significant overlap in the elution profiles of E2F1 and DDB. For instance, DDB, which does not bind to the E2F sites, was enriched in the high-salt fractions containing E2F1 during chromatography through an E2F-specific DNA affinity column. We also observed evidence for a functional interaction between DDB and E2F1 in living cells. For instance, expression of DDB specifically stimulated E2F1-activated transcription. In addition, the transcriptional activation function of a heterologous transcription factor containing the activation domain of E2F1 was stimulated by coexpression of DDB. Moreover, DDB expression could overcome the retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-mediated inhibition of E2F1-activated transcription. The results suggest that this damaged-DNA binding protein can function as a transcriptional partner of E2F1. We speculate that the damaged-DNA binding function of DDB, besides repair, might serve as a negative regulator of E2F1-activated transcription, as damaged DNA will sequester DDB and make it unavailable for E2F1. Furthermore, the binding of DDB to damaged DNA might be involved in downregulating the replication genes during growth arrest induced by damaged DNA.

PMID:
9418871
PMCID:
PMC121483
DOI:
10.1128/mcb.18.1.240
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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