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Environ Res. 1997 Nov;75(2):149-59.

Ambient air levels and the exposure of children to benzene, toluene, and xylenes in Denmark.

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Division for Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.


The aims of the study were to evaluate if the front-door concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylenes can be used to classify the personal exposures of Danish children and to identify factors that affect their personal exposure. Average concentrations were measured over 1 week with diffusive samplers, and the personal exposures of 98 children and the concentrations outside the front doors of their homes were measured simultaneously. Time and activity patterns were noted in diaries. The front-door concentrations were significantly higher in Copenhagen than in rural areas (all P < 0.0001), but the personal exposures were only slightly higher. Even though the personal exposures were highly significantly associated with front-door concentrations in urban areas (all P < 0.004), use of the residential front-door concentration as an exposure surrogate would imply misclassification, as it cannot be used for rural children. Multiple regression analyses brought to light several factors that affect the exposure of children independently, including front-door concentration, riding in cars, and activities involving potential exposure to gasoline vapors like motocross, moped driving, and refueling of cars.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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