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Medicine (Baltimore). 1997 Nov;76(6):423-31.

Cerebral tuberculosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Report of 6 cases and review.

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1
Clinique des Maladies Infectieuses, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

Abstract

Cerebral tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed in 6 (4%) of 156 HIV-infected patients with TB seen at our institution over 6 years. We describe here the clinical and radiologic features of these cases and of 15 others reported in the literature. Of the 21 patients, 59% were intravenous drug users. Presenting symptoms were fever (76%), confusion (52%), seizures (38%), and headache (38%). Fourteen patients (66%) had previous or active extracerebral TB at presentation. Cranial CT scan showed ring-(62%) or nodular-(24%) enhancing lesions or mixed forms (14%). Among the 12 patients who underwent a brain biopsy, bacteriologic evidence of TB was found in 9. Four patients (19%) died during hospitalization. Among the 17 others who received antituberculous therapy, only 1 developed neurologic sequelae. Five patients also received steroid therapy to control cerebral edema or paradoxical growth of the cerebral mass lesions. TB should be considered as a cause of cerebral mass lesions in HIV-infected patients, especially if tuberculous infection is suspected at other sites.

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