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Proc Biol Sci. 1997 Nov 22;264(1388):1657-62.

Parental antagonism, relatedness asymmetries, and genomic imprinting.

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  • 1Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.


The theory of inclusive fitness can be modified to consider separate coefficients of relatedness for an individual's maternal and paternal alleles. A gene is said to have parentally antagonistic effects if it has an inclusive fitness benefit when maternally derived, but an inclusive fitness cost when paternally derived (or vice versa). Parental antagonism favours the evolution of alleles that are expressed only when maternally derived or only when paternally derived (genomic imprinting).

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