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Hypertension. 1997 Dec;30(6):1416-24.

On-line synthesis of the human ascending aortic pressure pulse from the finger pulse.

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Cardiology Department and Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia.


Although systolic pressure in the ascending aorta (AA) can be determined accurately from the radial arterial waveform using a single generalized transfer function (TF) of the upper limb, a better on-line methods is needed for accurate noninvasive synthesis of the AA pressure contour to characterize left ventricular contractile function and ventricular-vascular coupling. AA, tonometric carotid (CA), and photoplethysmographic finger (FA) arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in 12 subjects (10 male, aged 59.1+/-10.3 years, mean+/-SD) during cardiac catheterization. The AA-FA TF was estimated using (1) a single generalized TF (GAA), (2) individualized TFs directly determined from CA-FA recordings in each patient (DAA), and (3) individualized TFs computed from CA-FA recordings in each patient with a mathematical model of the human upper limb (MAA). AA pressure waveforms were synthesized from FA recordings in real time using convolution windows derived from these TFs. Under steady state conditions, the root mean square error (RMSE) between measured and synthesized AA was lower by DAA (3.3+/-1.3 mm Hg) and MAA (3.9+/-1.2 mmHg) than by GAA (4.8+/-2.0 mm Hg, P<.05). During dynamic load alteration induced by the Valsalva maneuver, however, the MAA method performed better (5.4+/-2.8 mm Hg) than both the GAA (5.8+/-3.3 mm Hg, P<.05) and DAA (6.5+/-2.7 mm Hg, P<.01) methods. The beat-to-beat AA contour can be accurately and noninvasively synthesized on-line using individualized TFs. During dynamic load alteration, individualized TFs derived with an upper limb arterial model provide greater accuracy.

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