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The association of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Haemophilus ducreyi, and syphilis with HIV infection in young men in northern Thailand.

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1
Department of Epidemiology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Abstract

To evaluate the association between sexually transmitted diseases that commonly may cause genital ulceration and prevalent and incident HIV infections, we conducted three case control studies in a cohort of 21-year-old male military conscripts in northern Thailand. The men were evaluated at baseline in 1991 and semiannually until their discharge 2 years later. Serologic evidence of infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Haemophilus ducreyi, and HIV were more frequent at baseline in 83 men with a history of genital ulcer than in 97 men without such a history. Seropositivity to H. ducreyi (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46), HSV-2 (OR = 3.83), and syphilis (OR = 1.53) were more common in HIV-positive than HIV-negative men. Men (N = 45) who seroconverted to HIV while in the military were more often seropositive for H. ducreyi and HSV-2 before HIV seroconversion and also were more likely to seroconvert to HSV-2 and H. ducreyi during the same interval as their HIV seroconversion compared with men who remained HIV-negative. These data suggest that HSV-2 and H. ducreyi may be both markers for high-risk sexual behavior and risk factors for HIV infection among young men in Thailand.

PIP:

Three case-control studies conducted in 1991-93 in a cohort of 21-year-old male military conscripts in northern Thailand investigated the association between HIV infection and three sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) commonly associated with genital ulceration: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum. The studies compared 83 men with a history of genital ulcer disease (GUD) at baseline and 97 men without such a history, 103 men who were HIV-positive at baseline and 110 randomly selected HIV-negative conscripts, and 45 men who seroconverted to HIV while they were in the military and 124 men who remained HIV-negative throughout military service. The first study detected a significant dose-response association between number of commercial sex worker visits in the past year, lifetime number of sexual partners, and a history of GUD. Among men with GUD at baseline compared with those without GUD, the odds ratios were 2.52 for HSV-2, 2.02 for H. ducreyi, 0.97 for syphilis, and 2.14 for HIV. In the second study, HIV-infected men were significantly more likely than HIV-negative men to have antibodies to HSV-2 and H. ducreyi and a history of syphilis or gonorrhea. In the third study, men who converted to HIV were significantly more likely to have antibodies to H. ducreyi and HSV-2 at the visit before seroconversion than those who remained HIV-negative. Two independent predictors of seroconversion--HSV-2 seropositivity before conversion and 10 or more lifetime sexual partners--were identified. In northern Thailand, GUD, especially H. ducreyi and HSV-2, may be both a marker for increased HIV risk and a cofactor for HIV transmission.

PMID:
9402077
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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