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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;36(12):1752-9.

Axis II psychopathology as a function of Axis I disorders in childhood and adolescence.

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Oregon Research Institute, Eugene 97403-1983, USA.



To examine the occurrence of elevated personality disorder (PD) dimensional scores in a community sample of young adults as a function of the occurrence of Axis I disorders through age 18 years.


299 individuals who had been interviewed regarding Axis I disorders twice while in adolescence (first when 14 through 18 years of age) were carefully assessed regarding Axis I and II psychopathology at age 24.


The prevalence of PD diagnoses was relatively low (3.8% in participants with a history of Axis I versus 1.7% in participants with no Axis I history). The occurrence of all four Axis I diagnostic categories (major depression, anxiety disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, substance use disorders) in childhood and adolescence was associated with elevated PD dimensional scores. The likelihood of elevated PD dimensional scores increased as a function of the number of Axis I disorders. Elevated PD scores were significantly associated with a negative course of major depression.


Although the rates of PDs were low, the findings suggest a substantial degree of association between early-onset Axis I disorders and Axis II psychopathology in young adulthood. More research is needed to develop assessment and treatment recommendations addressing the early manifestations of PDs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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