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Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1997 Mar-Apr;39(2):85-90.

In vivo and in vitro Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine and quinine in the Brazilian Amazon.

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Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil.


In order to study the chemoresistance of Plasmodium falciparum to commonly used antimalarial drugs in Brazil the authors have studied ten patients with falciparum malaria, acquired in the Brazilian Amazon region. Patients were submitted to in vivo study of drug sensitivity, after chemotherapy with either 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine or amodiaquine) or quinine. Adequate drug absorption was confirmed by standard urine excretion tests for antimalarials. Eight patients could be followed up to 28 days. Among these in vivo resistance (R I and R II responses) was seen in all patients who received 4-amino-quinolines. One patient treated with quinine exhibited a R III response. Peripheral blood samples of the same patients were submitted to in vitro microtests for sensitivity to antimalarials. Out of nine successful tests, resistance to chloroquine and amodiaquine was found in 100% and resistance to quinine in 11.11% of isolates. Probit analysis of log dose-response was used to determine effective concentrations EC50, EC90 and EC99 to the studied drugs. Good correlation between in vivo and in vitro results was seen in six patients. The results emphasize high levels of P. falciparum resistance to 4-aminoquinolines and suggest an increase in resistance to quinine in the Brazilian Amazon region, reinforcing the need for continuous monitoring of drug sensitivity to adequate chemotherapy according to the most efficacious drug regimens.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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