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J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997 Dec;83(6):2055-63.

Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training.

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Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.


The effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration, muscle strength, and body composition were investigated in young female volunteers (n = 19) during 10 wk of resistance training (3 h/wk). Compared with placebo, 4 days of high-dose creatine intake (20 g/day) increased (P < 0.05) muscle PCr concentration by 6%. Thereafter, this increase was maintained during 10 wk of training associated with low-dose creatine intake (5 g/day). Compared with placebo, maximal strength of the muscle groups trained, maximal intermittent exercise capacity of the arm flexors, and fat-free mass were increased 20-25, 10-25, and 60% more (P < 0. 05), respectively, during creatine supplementation. Muscle PCr and strength, intermittent exercise capacity, and fat-free mass subsequently remained at a higher level in the creatine group than in the placebo group during 10 wk of detraining while low-dose creatine was continued. Finally, on cessation of creatine intake, muscle PCr in the creatine group returned to normal within 4 wk. It is concluded that long-term creatine supplementation enhances the progress of muscle strength during resistance training in sedentary females.

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