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Genetics. 1997 Nov;147(3):1317-28.

The dynamics of gynodioecy in Plantago lanceolata L. II. Mode of action and frequencies of restorer alleles.

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Netherlands Institute for Ecology, Heteren, The Netherlands.


Male fertility in Plantago lanceolata is controlled by the interaction of cytoplasmic and nuclear genes. Different cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) types can be either male sterile or hermaphrodite, depending on the presence of nuclear restorer alleles. In three CMS types of P. lanceolata (CMSI, CMSIIa, and CMSIIb) the number of loci involved in male fertility restoration was determined. In each CMS type, male fertility was restored by multiple genes with either dominant or recessive action and capable either of restoring male fertility independently or in interaction with each other (epistasis). Restorer allele frequencies for CMSI, CMSIIa and CMSIIb were determined by crossing hermaphrodites with "standard" male steriles. Segregation of male steriles vs. non-male steriles was used to estimate overall restorer allele frequency. The frequency of restorer alleles was different for the CMS types: restorer alleles for CMSI were less frequent than for CMSIIa and CMSIIb. On the basis of the frequencies of male steriles and the CMS types an "expected" restorer allele frequency could be calculated. The correlation between estimated and expected restorer allele frequency was significant.

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