Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Med Genet. 1997 Oct 17;72(2):129-34.

Vitamin K deficiency embryopathy: a phenocopy of the warfarin embryopathy due to a disorder of embryonic vitamin K metabolism.

Author information

University Children's Hospital, Mainz, Germany.


Three unrelated infants presented with radiographic punctate calcifications, nasal hypoplasia, and abnormalities of the spine. Additional anomalies included cupped ears in 2 patients and one each with Dandy-Walker malformation with hydrocephaly, congenital cataracts, and peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. The mothers of these 3 patients had chronic conditions associated with intestinal malabsorption requiring total parenteral nutrition for varying periods of time. The underlying causes of malabsorption were celiac disease, short bowel syndrome secondary to surgical resection, and jejuno-ileal bypass, respectively. Bleeding diathesis occurred in one mother requiring vitamin K supplementation during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. We speculate that the chondrodysplasia punctata and other abnormalities in these children were caused by an acquired maternal vitamin K deficiency manifested during early pregnancy. However, the involvement of other vitamin deficiencies cannot be excluded. Thus, vitamin K deficiency of the embryo secondary to maternal malabsorption appears to be a third vitamin K-related mechanism leading to chondrodysplasia punctata in addition to warfarin embryopathy and epoxide reductase deficiency (pseudo-warfarin embryopathy).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center