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J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997 Oct;40(4):517-23.

Unresponsive HIV-related oro-oesophageal candidosis--an evaluation of two new in-vitro azole susceptibility tests.

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HIV/GU Medicine Unit, Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, London, UK.


Azole-resistant HIV-related candidosis is increasingly recognized. We evaluated two new in-vitro susceptibility tests (the NCCLS proposed MIC method and Odds' assessment of relative growth in single anti-fungal concentration) as predictors of the clinical outcome of 66 HIV-positive patients with oral candidosis, of whom 22 were azole naive, 27 had always previously responded to azole therapy and 17 had persistent candidosis unresponsive to 7 days of standard azole therapy. None of the last group responded to increased daily doses of fluconazole or itraconazole capsules, though nine responded to itraconazole cyclodextrin solution 200 mg bd for 7 days. Our findings suggest that agreement between the Odds' test and the MIC method was excellent (96-98%) and that both could discriminate between isolates of azole-unresponsive patients and those of azole-responsive patients. For fluconazole susceptibility an MIC > or = 8 mg/L detected fluconazole-unresponsive patients with a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100%; Odds' method achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity using all cut-offs between 77 and 88% relative growth in medium containing fluconazole (10(-5) M; 3 mg/L). For itraconazole and ketoconazole agreement between MIC and Odds' method was again excellent (98% and 96%, respectively) but five azole-unresponsive patients appeared to have ketoconazole-susceptible organisms as defined by both tests, and similarly 11 appeared to have itraconazole-susceptible organisms by both tests despite failing to respond to the capsule formulation of the drug. Of these 11, eight responded to itraconazole solution; this finding implies that itraconazole capsule failure might represent poor drug absorption rather than fungal resistance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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