Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Oct;177(4):770-4.

Controlled cord traction versus minimal intervention techniques in delivery of the placenta: a randomized controlled trial.

Author information

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Comiche Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.



Our purpose was to compare the controlled cord traction technique with the minimal intervention technique for delivery of the placenta. The primary outcome was the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage. Secondary outcomes included duration of third stage of labor, frequency of retained placenta, hemorrhagic shock, the need for blood transfusion, and the need for uterotonic agents to control postpartum hemorrhage.


A total of 1648 women who were delivered vaginally were randomly allocated during labor to the controlled cord traction group (n = 827) or the minimal intervention group (n = 821). In the controlled cord traction group women received oxytocin, 10 units intramuscularly, with delivery of the baby's anterior shoulder, after which the placenta was delivered actively by controlled cord traction (Brandt-Andrews method). In the minimal intervention group the placenta was delivered by maternal pushing. Continuous intravenous oxytocin was given after delivery of the placenta. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each variable.


The overall incidence of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in the controlled cord traction group (5.8% vs 11%; odds ratio 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.73). The incidence of retained placenta (> or = 30 minutes) was 1.6% in the controlled cord traction group and 4.5% in the minimal intervention group (odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.63). Significantly more patients in the minimal intervention group required additional uterotonic agents to control hemorrhage (5.1% vs 2.3%; odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.78).


The controlled cord traction technique for delivery of the placenta results in a significantly lower incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and retained placenta, as well as less need for uterotonic agents, compared with the minimal intervention technique.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center