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Mol Endocrinol. 1997 Nov;11(12):1858-67.

Interference of BAD (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter)-induced apoptosis in mammalian cells by 14-3-3 isoforms and P11.

Author information

1
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Stanford University Medical School, California 94305-5317, USA.

Abstract

Apoptosis and survival of diverse cell types are under hormonal control, but intracellular mechanisms regulating cell death are unclear. The Bcl-2/Ced-9 family of proteins contains conserved Bcl-2 homology regions that mediate the formation of homo- or heterodimers important for enhancing or suppressing apoptosis. Unlike most other members of the Bcl-2 family, BAD (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 associated death promoter), a death enhancer, has no C-terminal transmembrane domain for targeting to the outer mitochondrial membrane and nuclear envelope. We hypothesized that BAD, in addition to binding Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, may interact with proteins outside the Bcl-2 family. Using the yeast two-hybrid system to search for BAD-binding proteins in an ovarian fusion cDNA library, we identified multiple cDNA clones encoding different isoforms of 14-3-3, a group of evolutionally conserved proteins essential for signal transduction and cell cycle progression. Point mutation of BAD in one (S137A), but not the other (S113A), putative binding site found in diverse 14-3-3 interacting proteins abolished the interaction between BAD and 14-3-3 without affecting interactions between BAD and Bcl-2. Because the S137A BAD mutant presumably resembles an underphosphorylated form of BAD, we used this mutant to screen for additional BAD-interacting proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system. P11, a nerve growth factor-induced neurite extension factor and member of the calcium-binding S-100 protein family, interacted strongly with the mutant BAD but less effectively with the wild type protein. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, transient expression of wild type BAD or its mutants increased apoptotic cell death, which was blocked by cotransfection with the baculovirus-derived cysteine protease inhibitor, P35. Cotransfection with 14-3-3 suppressed apoptosis induced by wild type or the S113A mutant BAD but not by the S137A mutant incapable of binding 14-3-3. Furthermore, cotransfection with P11 attenuated the proapoptotic effect of both wild type BAD and the S137A mutant. For both 14-3-3 and P11, direct binding to BAD was also demonstrated in vitro. These results suggest that both 14-3-3 and P11 may function as BAD-binding proteins to dampen its apoptotic activity. Because the 14-3-3 family of proteins could interact with key signaling proteins including Raf-1 kinase, protein kinase C, and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase, whereas P11 is an early response gene induced by the neuronal survival factor, nerve growth factor, the present findings suggest that BAD plays an important role in mediating communication between different signal transduction pathways regulated by hormonal signals and the apoptotic mechanism controlled by Bcl-2 family members.

PMID:
9369453
DOI:
10.1210/mend.11.12.0023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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