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J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 21;272(47):29752-8.

Human apolipoprotein B transgenic mice generated with 207- and 145-kilobase pair bacterial artificial chromosomes. Evidence that a distant 5'-element confers appropriate transgene expression in the intestine.

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Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, California 94141-9100, USA.


We reported previously that approximately 80-kilobase pair (kb) P1 bacteriophage clones spanning either the human or mouse apoB gene (clones p158 and p649, respectively) confer apoB expression in the liver of transgenic mice, but not in the intestine. We hypothesized that the absence of intestinal expression was due to the fact that these clones lacked a distant DNA element controlling intestinal expression. To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. RNase protection, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical, and genetic complementation studies revealed that the BAC transgenic mice manifested appropriate apoB gene expression in both the intestine and the liver, indicating that both BACs contained the distant intestinal element. To determine whether the regulatory element was located 5' or 3' to the apoB gene, transgenic mice were generated by co-microinjecting embryos with p158 and either the 5'- or 3'-sequences from the 145-kb BAC. Analysis of these mice indicated that the apoB gene's intestinal element is located 5' to the structural gene. Cumulatively, the transgenic mouse studies suggest that the intestinal element is located between -33 and -70 kb 5' to the apoB gene.

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