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Bioessays. 1997 Oct;19(10):855-63.

Vertebrate head induction by anterior primitive endoderm.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles 90095-1662, USA.


In vertebrates the antero-posterior organization of the embryonic body axis is thought to result from the activity of two separate centers, the head organizer and the trunk organizer, as operationally defined by Spemann in the 1920s. Current molecular studies have supported the existence of a trunk organizer activity while the presence of a distinct head inducing center has remained elusive. Mainly based on analyses of headless mutants in mice, it has been proposed that the anterior axial mesoderm plays a determining role in head induction. Recent gain- and loss-of-function studies in various organisms, however, provide compelling evidence that a largely ignored region, the anterior primitive endoderm, specifies rostral identity. In this review we discuss the emerging concept that the anterior primitive endoderm, rather than the prechordal plate mesoderm, induces head development in the vertebrate embryo.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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