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J Fla Med Assoc. 1997 Oct;84(7):433-40.

Venomous marine animals of Florida: morphology, behavior, health hazards.

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Department of Dermatology, University of Miami School of Medicine, USA.


This article reviews the dangers related to marine animal envenomations in Florida. Venomous marine animals exhibit diverse mechanisms of injury and toxicity. Information regarding the morphology, behavior, and health hazards of these dangerous organisms is presented to help medical personnel recognize, diagnose and treat marine envenomations. Hazardous marine animals discussed in this review include both invertebrates and vertebrates. Stinging invertebrate animals include sponges, coelenterates (jellyfish, hydroids, corals, and sea anemones), echinoderms (sea urchins, starfish and sea cucumbers), annelid worms (bristleworm), and mollusks (cone shells, octopi and nudibranches). Stinging vertebrates discussed include stingrays, catfish, scorpionfish, and leatherjacks.

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