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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1997 Nov 1;13(16):1357-66.

HIV type 1 subtypes, coreceptor usage, and CCR5 polymorphism.

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The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10016, USA.


Identification of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as the major coreceptors for HIV-1 entry has greatly assisted our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis, transmission, and tropism. However, most of our current knowledge on coreceptor usage comes from studies using HIV-1 strains or env genes derived from the genetic subtype B predominant in North America and western Europe. In this report, the coreceptor usage of 20 primary viral isolates representative of genetic subtypes A, B, C, D, E, and group O was examined. Thirty-nine full-length CCR5 sequences from individuals of diverse geographic origins were also obtained to examine the possible effect of CCR5 polymorphism on HIV-1 subtype distribution. Our results indicate that (1) CCR5 and CXCR4 serve as the two major coreceptors for viruses belonging to HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C, D, E, and group O, whereas other chemokine receptors such as CCR2b and CCR3 play only a minor role in facilitating viral entry into stimulated PBMCs; (2) the coreceptor usage is determined by the viral phenotype rather than its genotype because all NSI strains, irrespective of their subtype classification, utilize CCR5, whereas all SI strains are able to use CXCR4; and (3) there is no geographic clustering of CCR5 polymorphism in different ethnic populations, suggesting that CCR5 diversity is not the underlying explanation for differences in the spread of different HIV-1 subtypes. Therefore, the uneven worldwide distribution of HIV-1 subtypes is more likely the result of stochastic dissemination.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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