Send to

Choose Destination
Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Nov 15;25(22):4626-38.

Statistical modeling and analysis of the LAGLIDADG family of site-specific endonucleases and identification of an intein that encodes a site-specific endonuclease of the HNH family.

Author information

NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, ABL-Basic Research Program, PO Box B, Building 549, Room 154, Frederick, MD 21702-1202, USA.


The LAGLIDADG and HNH families of site-specific DNA endonucleases encoded by viruses, bacteriophages as well as archaeal, eucaryotic nuclear and organellar genomes are characterized by the sequence motifs 'LAGLIDADG' and 'HNH', respectively. These endonucleases have been shown to occur in different environments: LAGLIDADG endonucleases are found in inteins, archaeal and group I introns and as free standing open reading frames (ORFs); HNH endonucleases occur in group I and group II introns and as ORFs. Here, statistical models (hidden Markov models, HMMs) that encompass both the conserved motifs and more variable regions of these families have been created and employed to characterize known and potential new family members. A number of new, putative LAGLIDADG and HNH endonucleases have been identified including an intein-encoded HNH sequence. Analysis of an HMM-generated multiple alignment of 130 LAGLIDADG family members and the three-dimensional structure of the I- Cre I endonuclease has enabled definition of the core elements of the repeated domain (approximately 90 residues) that is present in this family of proteins. A conserved negatively charged residue is proposed to be involved in catalysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the two families indicates a lack of exchange of endonucleases between different mobile elements (environments) and between hosts from different phylogenetic kingdoms. However, there does appear to have been considerable exchange of endonuclease domains amongst elements of the same type. Such events are suggested to be important for the formation of elements of new specficity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center