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J Bacteriol. 1997 Nov;179(21):6609-17.

Molecular evolution and host adaptation of Bordetella spp.: phylogenetic analysis using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and typing with three insertion sequences.

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Laboratory of Infectious Disease Research, National Institute of Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.


A total of 188 Bordetella strains were characterized by the electrophoretic mobilities of 15 metabolic enzymes and the distribution and variation in positions and copy numbers of three insertion sequences (IS). The presence or absence of IS elements within certain lineages was congruent with estimates of overall genetic relationships as revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Bordetella pertussis and ovine B. parapertussis each formed separate clusters, while human B. parapertussis was most closely related to IS1001-containing B. bronchiseptica isolates. The results of the analysis provide support for the hypothesis that the population structure of Bordetella is predominantly clonal, with relatively little effective horizontal gene flow. Only a few examples of putative recombinational exchange of an IS element were detected. Based on the results of this study, we tried to reconstruct the evolutionary history of different host-adapted lineages.

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