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Circ Res. 1997 Nov;81(5):774-84.

Bradykinin B2-receptor activation augments norepinephrine exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings. Mediation by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

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Department of Pharmacology, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.


We determined whether local bradykinin production modulates cardiac adrenergic activity. Depolarization of guinea pig heart sympathetic nerve endings (synaptosomes) with 1 to 100 mmol/L K+ caused the release of endogenous norepinephrine (10% to 50% above basal level). This release was exocytotic, because it depended on extracellular Ca2+, was inhibited by the N-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker omega-conotoxin and the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro31-8220, and was potentiated by the neuronal uptake-1 inhibitor desipramine. Typical of adrenergic terminals, norepinephrine exocytosis was enhanced by activation of prejunctional angiotensin AT1-receptors and attenuated by adrenergic alpha 2-receptors, adenosine A1-receptors, and histamine H3-receptors. Exogenous bradykinin enhanced norepinephrine exocytosis by 7% to 35% (EC50, 17 nmol/L), without inhibiting uptake 1. B2-receptor, but not B1-receptor, blockade antagonized this effect. The kininase II/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat and the addition of kininogen or kallikrein enhanced norepinephrine exocytosis by approximately equal to 6% to 40% (EC50, 20 nmol/L) and approximately equal to 25% to 60%, respectively. This potentiation was prevented by serine protease inhibitors and was antagonized by B2-receptor blockade. Therefore, norepinephrine exocytosis is augmented when bradykinin synthesis is increased or when its breakdown is inhibited. This is the first report of a local kallikrein-kinin system in adrenergic nerve endings capable of generating enough bradykinin to activate B2-receptors in an autocrine/paracrine fashion and thus enhance norepinephrine exocytosis. This amplification process may operate in disease states, such as myocardial ischemia, associated with severalfold increases in local kinin concentrations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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