Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Free Radic Res. 1997 Sep;27(3):245-54.

Oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin by peroxynitrite.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.

Abstract

The simultaneous production of nitric oxide and superoxide anion leads to the formation of peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant which may be an important mediator of cellular injury. Oxidation of dichlorofluorescin to the fluorescent dichlorofluorescein has been used as a marker for cellular oxidant production. The mechanisms of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation of dichlorofluorescin to dichlorofluorescein were investigated. Chemically synthesized peroxynitrite (50-500 nM) induced the oxidation of dichlorofluorescin to dichlorofluorescein in a linear fashion. In addition, the simultaneous generation of nitric oxide and superoxide anion induced the oxidation of dichlorofluorescin to dichlorofluorescein, while nitric oxide (1-10 microM) alone under aerobic conditions did not. Peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation of dichlorofluorescin was not inhibited by the hydroxyl radical scavengers mannitol (100 mM) or dimethylsulfoxide (100 mM). Moreover, peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation of dichlorofluorescin was not dependent upon metal ion-catalyzed reactions. Furthermore, dichlorofluorescein formation was diminished at alkaline pH. These findings suggest that peroxynitrite-mediated dichlorofluorescein formation results directly from the protonation of peroxynitrite to form the conjugate peroxynitrous acid. L-cysteine was an efficient inhibitor (KI approximately 25 microM) of dichlorofluorescin oxidation through competitive oxidation of free sulfhydryls. Urate was a less efficient with a maximum inhibition of only 49%. These results demonstrate that dichlorofluorescin is efficiently oxidized by peroxynitrite. Therefore, under conditions where nitric oxide and superoxide are produced simultaneously, oxidation of dichlorofluorescin may be mediated by the formation of peroxynitrite.

PMID:
9350429
DOI:
10.3109/10715769709065763
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center