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Mech Dev. 1997 Sep;67(1):49-58.

Elements both 5' and 3' to the murine Hoxd4 gene establish anterior borders of expression in mesoderm and neurectoderm.

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McGill Cancer Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.


In this report, we show that a lacZ reporter spanning 12.5 kb of murine Hoxd4 genomic DNA contains the major regulatory elements controlling Hoxd4 expression in the mouse embryo. Mutational analysis revealed multiple regulatory regions both 5' and 3' to the coding region. These include a 3' enhancer region required for expression in the central nervous system (CNS) and setting the anterior border in the paraxial mesoderm, and a 5' mesodermal enhancer that directs expression in paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm. A previously defined retinoic acid response element (RARE) is a component of the 5' mesodermal enhancer. Our results support a model in which retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and HOX proteins mediate the initiation and maintenance of Hoxd4 expression.

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