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J Med Chem. 1997 Oct 10;40(21):3336-45.

Effect of a chemical modification on the hydrated adenosine intermediate produced by adenosine deaminase and a model reaction for a potential mechanism of action of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylase.

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale 62901-4409, USA.


Using the hydrated adenosine intermediate (6R)-6-amino-1, 6-dihydro-6-hydroxy-9-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)purine (2) produced by adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC as a starting point, the active site probe and inhibitor platform 5-(formylamino)imidazole riboside (FAIRs, 4) was designed by removal of the-C6(OH)(NH2)-molecular fragment of 2 generated by the early events of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis. FAIRs was synthesized directly from the sodium salt of 5-amino-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (CAIR) along a reaction sequence involving a tandem N-formylation/decarboxylation that may have a mechanistic connection to the Escherichia coli purE-catalyzed constitutional isomerization of N5-CAIR to CAIR. The physical and spectral properties of FAIRs were elucidated, its X-ray crystal and NMR solution structures were determined, and its interaction with ADA was investigated. Crystalline FAIRs exists solely as the Z-formamide rotamer and exhibits many of the same intramolecular hydrogen bonding events known to contribute to the association of Ado to ADA. In water and various organic solvents, however, FAIRs exists as NMR-distinct, slowly interconverting Z and E rotamers. This truncated enzymatic tetrahedral intermediate analog was determined to be a competitive inhibitor of ADA with an apparent Ki binding constant of 40 microM, a value quite close to that (33 microM) of the natural substrate's K(m). The actual species selected for binding by ADA, though, is likely the minor hydroxyimino prototropic form of Z-FAIRs possessing a far lower true Ki value. As the structural features of FAIRs appear well-suited to support its use as a template for constructing active site probes of both ADA and AIR carboxylases, a variety of carbohydrate-protected versions of FAIRs suitable for facile aglycon elaborations were synthesized. The N3-alkylation, N3-borane complexation, and C4-iodination of some of these were investigated in order to assess physicochemical properties that may assist in the elucidation of mechanisms for the AIR carboxylases. The survey of these properties taken together with a reasonable mechanism for the model CAIRs-->FAIRs synthetic transformation is interpreted to support a mechanism for the purE-catalyzed N5-CAIR-->CAIR biosynthetic one that involves a carboxylative sp3-rehybridization of the imidazole C4 atom rather than one possessing a dipole-stabilized C4 sp2 carbanionic intermediate.

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