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J Urol. 1997 Nov;158(5):1915-21.

Ureteral Stones Clinical Guidelines Panel summary report on the management of ureteral calculi. The American Urological Association.



The American Urological Association convened the Ureteral Stones Clinical Guidelines Panel to analyze the literature regarding available methods for treating ureteral calculi and to make practice policy recommendations based on the treatment outcomes data.


The panel searched the MEDLINE data base for all articles related to ureteral calculi published from 1966 to January 1996. Outcomes data were extracted from articles accepted after panel review. The data were then meta-analyzed to produce outcome estimates for alternative treatments of ureteral calculi.


The data indicate that up to 98% of stones less than 0.5 cm. in diameter, especially in the distal ureter, will pass spontaneously. Shock wave lithotripsy is recommended as first line treatment for most patients with stones 1 cm. or less in the proximal ureter. Shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy are acceptable treatment choices for stones 1 cm. or less in the distal ureter.


Most ureteral stones will pass spontaneously. Those that do not can be removed by either shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy. Traditional blind basket extraction, without fluoroscopic control and guide wires, is not recommended. Open surgery is appropriate as a salvage procedure or in certain unusual circumstances.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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